A) Ion beams from the Tandem accelerator.
The characteristics of the typical ion beams available at the SIRAD irradiation facility are reported in Table I: the energy values refer to the most probable q1 and q2 ion charge state, obtained with two stripper stations and with the Tandem operating at 14 MV, while the surface ion LET and range in silicon have been calculated by SRIM. Avalaible ions beams are from protons (1H) up to gold (197Au), covering a wide range of Linear Energy Transfer (LET) values, suitable for SEE studies. At present when using 197Au beams in SIRAD the operating voltage is typically lowered to 11.6 MV due to a constraint in the maximum magnetic fields to analyze and then deviate the beam into the line at 70o. The ion species reported in Table I have been selected in order to minimize the time required for the ion source change during SEE tests. When possible two multi-sources (the first including O, Si, Ni and Ag in green; the second including F, Cl, Br, and I in orange) are used to decrease the time for beam setting.
It is also possible to irradiate by high energy high range ions by considering the Tandem-ALPI complex: for instance Br at 550 MeV (A=79, Q=19, A/Q=4.154, B=0.8324 T) whose range and LET in Silicon are 67.3 um and 34.5 MeV*cm2/mg, respectively.